Pneumonia is an infectious or inflammatory disease of the lung organs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites where the pulmonary alveolus (alveoli) which is responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere becomes “inflame” and filled with liquid.
Pneumonia can also be caused by chemical or physical irritation of the lungs or as a result of other diseases, such as lung cancer or drinking too much alcohol. But the most common cause is an attack of bacterium streptococcus pneumoniae , or pneumococci .
Pneumonia often affects most of the elderly (elderly) and those who have chronic disease as a result of damage to the immune system (immune), but Pneumonia can also attack healthy young people. Currently in the world, Pneumonia is reported to have become a major disease among children and is a serious disease that takes the lives of thousands of elderly people every year.
Causes of pneumonia
The method of transmission of Pneumonia virus or bacteria is not yet known with certainty, but there are several things that allow a person at high risk of developing Pneumonia, as reported by kimiafarmaapotek.com , including:
1. Weak body resistance
People who have weak immune system, such as HIV / AIDS sufferers and people with chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus. Likewise for those who have or routinely undergo chemotherapy and take immunosuppressant drugs for a long time, where they generally have a weak immune system.
2. Smokers and alcohol drinkers
Heavy smokers can experience irritation in the respiratory tract ( bronchial ) which eventually results in mucus secretions. If ripples or phlegm contain bacteria, it can cause pneumonia. Alcohol can have an adverse effect on white blood cells, this causes weakness in the body’s resistance to infection.
3. Patients undergoing treatment in the ICU / ICCU room
Patients who received an ‘ endotracheal tube ‘ ventilator were very at risk of developing pneumonia. When they cough will release back pressure on the contents of the stomach towards the esophagus, if it contains bacteria and moves to the respiratory cavity (ventilator), the high potential for pneumonia.
4. Inhaling air contaminated with chemical pollution
High risk faced by farmers if they spray plants with chemical substances without wearing a mask is irritation and causes inflammation of the lungs which consequently easily suffers from Pneumonia with the entry of bacteria or viruses.
5. Old patient lying down
Patients who experience major surgery causing them problems in terms of mobilization are one of the high risks of pneumonia, where static lying sleep allows ripples or phlegm to gather in the lung cavity and become a medium for the development of bacteria.
Symptoms of pneumonia
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia range from mild to severe, depending on factors such as the type of germs that cause infection, age and overall health. Mild signs and symptoms are usually similar to fever or flu, but the symptoms last longer. While the signs of suffering from pneumonia can be known after undergoing X-ray (Rongent) and sputum examination.
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include:
- Chest pain
- Confusion or change in mental awareness (adults 65 and older)
- Cough that expands phlegm
- Fever, sweating and shivering
- Lower than normal body temperature (adults older than 65 years and people with weakened immune systems)
- Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
- Hard to breathe.
But newborns and babies may not show signs of infection. Or they may vomit, fever and cough, look restless or tired and without energy, or have difficulty breathing and eating.
How to treat pneumonia
Treatment and treatment of pneumonia depends on the severity of symptoms and the type of cause of pneumonia itself.
- Pneumonia caused by bacteria will be given antibiotic treatment. Treatment must be completely complete until there is absolutely no symptoms or X-ray and sputum examination results no longer show the presence of Pneumonia bacteria, if not then someday Pneumonia will be suffered again.
- Pneumonia caused by a virus will be given Pneumonia treatment which is almost the same as a cold sufferer, but it is emphasized with adequate rest and sufficient fluid intake and good nutrition to help the recovery of the immune system.
- Pneumonia caused by fungi will get treatment with antifungal.
Besides giving other pneumonia drugs to help reduce pain, fever and headaches. Giving anti-cough medicine is recommended at low doses just enough to make the patient can rest sleep, because coughing will also help the cleansing process of mucossa secretions (ripples or phlegm) in the lungs.