Hypertension – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


What is hypertension? High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition where the strength of blood flow to the arterial wall is quite high. Nearly a third of people who have hypertension are not aware of this disease in their body.

If you haven’t checked and don’t know your blood pressure, ask your doctor to check it out. All adults should check their blood pressure at least every five years. The power of blood pressure can change over time, influenced by what activity the heart is doing and the resistance of the blood vessels.

Causes of hypertension

Risk factors that make a person experience hypertension include: obesity, drinking too much alcohol, smoking, and family history. One of the most dangerous aspects of hypertension is that every individual does not realize that he has high blood pressure.

The risk of developing hypertension can be reduced by changing the things above and applying a healthier lifestyle. The only way to find out if you have hypertension is with regular blood pressure checks. This is important especially if we have relatives or descendants of high blood pressure.

Symptoms of hypertension

High blood pressure or hypertension often does not cause symptoms. However, in some people with very high blood pressure symptoms of hypertension can appear:

  • Severe headaches
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Vision problems (possible complications to the retinal eye)
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • The presence of blood in the urine (possible complications to the kidneys)
  • Pounding on the chest, neck or ears.

If you have symptoms of hypertension, see your doctor immediately. Uncontrolled blood pressure can cause the patient to fall into a hypertensive crisis condition, namely hypertension that causes organ failure such as a heart attack or stroke .

Hypertension diagnosis

High blood pressure is often called the silent disease because patients usually do not know that their body has high blood pressure. This is because hypertension does not show visible signs and symptoms. That’s why regular blood pressure monitoring is very important.

The ideal blood pressure rate is below 120/80 mmHg. However, the measurement results below 130/90 mmHg are still within normal limits. Blood pressure can change. High measurement results in one examination does not mean you are automatically suffering from hypertension.

Blood pressure is usually measured using manual or digital sphygmomanometers. Most doctors now use digital sphygmomanometer, a blood pressure measuring device that uses electronic sensors to detect your pulse.

Hypertension is divided into three, namely:

1. Hypertension grade I

When systolic blood pressure is above or equal to 140 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure is above or equal to 90 mmHg. Hypertension diagnosis of grade I if for 2 consecutive examinations in a span of a week the patient shows the blood pressure.

2. Hypertension grade II

When systolic blood pressure is above or equal to 160 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure is above or equal to 100 mmHg at one time.

3. Hypertension crisis

When diastolic blood pressure is above or equal to 180 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure is above or equal to 110 mmHg. Hypertension crisis itself is divided into 2:

  • Emergency hypertension (if there is a vital organ failure)
  • Hypertension urgency (if there is no vital organ failure).

Treatment of hypertension

The main treatment of hypertension is to change lifestyle. Healthy lifestyle that can be applied, including:

  • Regular exercise
  • Keep your body weight ideal
  • Limit salt consumption
  • Avoid smoking.

In addition, you also need to be able to avoid stress, because it can cause emotional, psychological, and even physical problems, including coronary heart disease and high blood pressure. Therefore, dealing with stress is important to avoid hypertension.

After you can change your lifestyle to be healthier, you also need some medications that can be used to lower blood pressure, including:

1. Calcium channel blocker

This drug is used to reduce blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers work by slowing the movement of calcium into heart cells and blood vessel walls, which makes the heart easier to pump and widen blood vessels.

2. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

High blood pressure medications that widen blood vessels thereby increasing the amount of blood pumped by the heart and ultimately reducing hypertension.

3. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB)

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have the same effects as ACE inhibitors, but work with different mechanisms.

4. Diuretics

Commonly known as water pills, which help the body to get rid of water and salt that is not needed through urine. Getting rid of excess salt and fluids helps lower blood pressure and can make the heart pump blood more lightly.

5. Beta-blockers

This drug is used to treat high blood pressure by blocking the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on the heart.

6. Omega-3 fish oil supplements

Fish diet supplements and fish oil have benefits for healthy people and also people with heart disease.

Foods that can reduce hypertension:

Diets that can help control hypertension are foods rich in potassium, magnesium, fiber and low in sodium.

Follow foods that can help reduce hypertension:

1. Green vegetables
2. Fruit berries
3. Bit
4. Skim milk and yogurt
5. Oatmeal
6. Banana
7. Salmon, mackerel, and fish with omega-3
8. Grains
9. Garlic and herbs
10. Black chocolate
11. Pistachio
12. Olive oil
13. Pomegranate

Hypertension Prevention

By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help maintain blood pressure in a healthy range and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. Healthy lifestyle is the same as treating hypertension, including:

  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Get enough physical activity
  • Do not smoke
  • Limiting alcohol use

High discipline in implementing a healthy lifestyle will have a significant positive impact on blood pressure. Some hypertensive sufferers don’t even need to take drugs because they have successfully applied lifestyle changes to normalize blood pressure .